By providing this synthetic knowledge, world regional geography is intended to introduce students to the global through the regional.Â In contemporary course descriptions, the âinstantaneously available globeâ that Warntz described in 1968 is overhauled to provide students with the necessary tools to mediate the cross-cultural boundaries they might come up against in the future, whether in their study abroad programs or the job market. Armstrong and G.J. Indeed, for decades geographers have debated the utility of the region as an approach to scholarship. In fact, traditional regional geography became emblematic of geographyâs failures. This course would neither jettison regions nor adopt them. But there is often a disjuncture between understanding regions individuallyâtheir physical landscapes, climate, soil, political and economic structures, and flora and faunaâand the âglobalâ scale processes that unite them.Â. Arguing with regions. T. World regional geography requires considerable rethinking of what the regional and global are doing in this course. Additionally, geographers found world regions to serve as an effective pedagogical framework for teaching physical and human subfields of geography (ibid). World Regional Geography courses, situated between physical and human geography, are uniquely positioned to engage with these global processes. On the other hand, in the regional approach, first the world is divided into regions at different hierarchical levels and then all the geographical phenomena in a particular region are studied. Reassessing Kantâs Geography. Journal of Geography. Thrift, Nigel. Geographers teach this subject because students expect it; itâs appealing; it provides a connection between the geography taught in U.S. high schools and the geography conducted in the university. Despite this compelling pedagogical strategy, âtraditional regional geography still often manifests itself in the textbooks on regional geography, where the regions, created and classified by the researchers, are often described without contextual interpretationâ (Paasi 2009, 30). Gregory, D. 1989. The myth of continents. Distinguish between regional approach and systematic approach of Geography. During the early 20th century, regional geography served as the strategic means to differentiate the discipline from other institutionalized fields, such as economics, sociology, and geology (Paasi 2009, 11). Introduction: Regional Geography, the Oldest Type of Geography Regional Geography is, almost certainly, the oldest type of geography, since it can be traced in the works of Herodotus. London: Macmillan, 67-96. Markussen, A. The synthetic approach in geography can provide practical forecasts of the consequences of man’s interference with natural forces. The systematic approach was introduced by a German geographer Alexander Von Humboldt. Regions do things in the world. Yet, regional geography remained as a mode of instruction in the classroom: âgenerations of studentsâ¦have studied regional geography courses and they still do so, whether they do under the label of regional geography, area studies, or specially named courses. Amin, A. Decades after its decline, geographers continued to express lingering humiliation about regional geography: âit was practically impossible to find a book that could be put in the hands of another scholar without feeling ashamedâ (Gould 1979, cited in Paasi 2009, 16). Because of the different approaches, geography is better known for its dualistic characteristics. Human choices about how to utilize the physical environment shape cultural differences, rather than that the environment itself. New regional geography, foreign area studies, and Perestroika. Lewis, M. and Wigen, K. 1997. 2003. While many textbooks do provide sections that emphasize the formation of regions as a socio-historical process, none question their own definition of regions (Rees and Legates). Geography was institutionalized in universities during the late 19th century. Regional geography emerged as an idiographic science rooted in description. The Comparison of a Thematic versus Regional Approach to Teaching a World Geography Course. Systematic Approach and; Regional Approach. As geographers persistently admit in their ongoing discussions of bridging these theoretical and pedagogical gaps, time-constraints of a semester certainly present real limitations to this. A theory and practice of regions: the case of Europe. Progress in Human Geography. For a New Regional Geography 1. Neither does emphasizing global processes necessarily solve fundamental tensions in how the course is taught. This ongoing revision of World Regional Geography has stressed the global geographic processes that connect and differentiate regions. Regional approach Systematic geography approach was introduced by German Geographer Alexander Von Humboldt where as regional geography approach was introduced by another German geographer Karl Ritter . But when Harvard shut down its geography department in 1948, the culprit, according to spatial scientists, was descriptive regional geography. Alexander von Humboldt, oil on canvas by Friedrich Georg Weitsch, 1806; in the National Gallery of the National Museums in Berlin. Regional Approach: This is one of the popular approaches of study of Economic Geography that attempts to study the economy of the different geographical regions in a … In his assessment of the history of regional geography, Tim Cresswell asserts: âthere is something about the region, then, that suggests in-betweennessâ¦While a region may have itâs own sub-regions, made of parts, it is also part of a whole, it is not necessarily completeâ (2013). A critique of metageography. Instead, students should be encouraged to focus on the processes that produce a regional definition and its consequences (Rees and Legates; 336). Even William Warntz, an outspoken advocate of spatial science, described benefits of a geographical education that reflected traditional regional geography and its pursuits. These concernsâthe strained relationship between regional frameworks and contemporary focuses on relational global processes, the relative absence of historical contextualization, and the desires and goals of students themselvesâcontinue to be grappled with in professional meetings and pedagogy-focused journals. 1 Introduction. Andrew C. Isenberg, ed. In The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History. 1988. No predictions or general laws could be culled through this descriptive science. Elden, S. 2009. Rather, history is the study of time and geography is the study of space. On the other hand, the regional approach was also developed by a German geographer namely Karl Ritter; he was a contemporary of Humboldt. 30(1): 99â101. 1991. Herper, R.A. For more than a century, geographers have studied the regions of the world. Instead of organizing the world for students, regions should be drawn upon to explore how these divisions were produced and do work in the world, while also attending to the material conditions these regional imaginaries are shaped by. Regional Geography. Progress in Human Geography 15(4): 456â466. Regions were attributed and associated with specific cultures, as whole ways of life, most often defined by their, then, rather dominant dependence on primary sector … It was later criticised for its descriptiveness and the lack of theory. Marston, S., Knox, P., Liverman, D., Del Casino, V., and Robbins, P. 2013. Since the 1950s, debates over defining regions have provided a âbasis to legitimate the existence of geography as a discipline in the academy â¦for many scholars regional geography has simply been an academic territory that serves as a safeguard against the absorption of geography as part of some other geographic fieldsâ (Paasi 2009, 6). Rather it would identify various regional imaginaries and divisions, and show how they are produced and do work in the world. ii) Based on similarities. New regional geography is a heterogeneous field with a general interest in âsocial theory that would explain spatial variationâ (Holmen 1995). 1990. Whereas Humboldt laid the groundwork for what later became known as systematic geography, Ritter focused on regional geography, the study of the connections between phenomena in places. In the late 19th century, de la Blanche developed … For a New Regional Geography 3. Regional geography, a synthetic approach, absorbed all the systematic branches of geography. As a unit of analysis and instruction, the region is âvagueâ (Cresswell 2013; Paasi 2009). Jonas, AEG. Geographers have been working to integrate interventions of new regional geography into the classroom (Lees and Legates 2013; Higgitt 2012; Herper 2004; Halseth and Fondahl 1998; Glass 2014; Fouberg 2013; Dittmer 2006). But the stakes of how to teach world regional geography must be considered outside of the framework of what geographers do or donât do and assumptions of what students expect or donât expect. However, new regional geography, influenced by various bodies of thought, has not offered a coherent approach to regions. Regional and thematic approaches are two basic approaches in geography, and they are found in many combinations and variants in textbooks. Higgitt, D. Journal of GeographyÂ in Higher Education 36(1): 1â7. In an introductory course that assumes minimal knowledge about places outside of the United States, instructors often juggle between reviewing encyclopedic information about each region and establishing contemporary geographical approaches that reject the region as a fixed, analytical concept. Progress in Human Geography. Paasi, A. Regional geography is a field of study which strongly contrasts with systematic geography. This regional approach enabled the discipline to differentiate itself from other fields, serving as an instrumental framework for analyzing the differentiation of the earthâs surface (Paasi 2009 13). Cosgrove, D. 1999. London: Elsevier. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 96(4): 807â826. They are not merely the result of territorializing processes, but an active producer as well. In histories of geographyâs institutionalization as a discipline, regional geography is drawn upon to explain both the disciplineâs contemporary endurance and its temporary decline during the 1950s. Although the contemporary course addresses regional geographical imaginations and histories, it is still expected to enhance synthetic knowledge about world regions. Regional geography approach was introduced by: Answer: [A] Karl Ritter. In Gregory, D. and Walford, R., editors, Horizons in human geography. Martin, eds.Â Geographers: Biobibliographical Studies,Â Vol 19. Instead, students should be encouraged to focus on the processes that produce a regional definition and its consequences (Rees and Legates; 336). Progress in Human Geography 17(1): 92â100. 2014. âWhen Regions Collide: In What Sense a New Regional Problem?â Environment and Planning A 46(10): 2332â2352. The benefits of a regional or thematic approach to the study and presentation of world geography have long been debated. Taylor, PJ. Pudup, MB. Regions, however, were unique totalities; composed of contingent facts about a place and their interrelationships, regions could not be explained by general laws (Barnes and Paris 2006, 812). The first one is the systematic approach and the second one is the regional approach. Systematic And Regional Approaches To High School Geography. In his proposal to Harvard supporting the re-establishment of a geography department, he promoted the product of a geographical education: an appropriately educated subject whoÂ âshould carry about in his mindâs eye an instantaneously available globeâ (Warntz 1968). World regional geography continues to be advertised to serve this role. The term geography was first coined by a Greek scholar Eratosthenes. On the other hand, the regional approach was also developed by a German geographer namely Karl Ritter; he was a contemporary of Humboldt. Various scholars rejected attempts to render these approaches exclusive, arguing that regions both reflect material differences and ideas about differences (ibid). GEOGRAPHY MODULE - 1 Notes The study of Geography as a discipline 2 Nature of Geography as a discipline z understand man-environment relationships and their impacts on each other; z illustrate the systematic and regional approaches of Geography; z understand various analytical techniques in Geography; z identify the different branches of Geography and its scope. Regions on the Mind Does Not Equal Regions of the Mind. Jones, M. and Passi, A. Another debate emerging within new regional geography occurred through the disciplineâs broader conflict between realists and constructionists. Sutter, P.Â 2014. Conditionally, interactions interlace under the influence of the character of Geography as a science, education, approaches, goals and teaching methods. In the opinion of FORBEL, geography can be divided into two parts. 46: 6-13. Erkunde 54: 320-333. Regional approach i) Based on geographical units. Warntz, W., proposal by Wartnz to establish a Geography Department at Harvard, titled “Modern Theoretical Geography as an Academic Discipline and Considerations of a Geography Departmentâs Role in the College Curriculum,â January 30, 1968 (Unpublished source in the authorâs possession). Based on Regional Approach, major branches of Geography are −. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 37(3): 327â349. Global, national and local development … Notes: Geography is studied majorly by using two approaches 1. Hartshorne, R. 1959. 1988. The Questions and Answers of distinguish between regional and systematic approach Related: NCERT Solutions - Geography as a Discipline, Class 11, Geography? Despite geographyâs turn to spatial science, the regional model was still considered a useful introductory approach, enabling students to begin placing themselves in broader global contexts (Korson and Kusek 2015). Conditionally, interactions interlace under the influence of the character of Geography as a science, education, approaches, goals and teaching methods. As information accumulated, a new branch of geography was established by the late Middle Ages, called chorography (or chorology). The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography. Regional world(s): advancing the geography of regions. The goal to not to reimagine these debates or to promote one approach over another; the aim is to explore how world geography courses are currently being taught in American universities. The region, geographyâs central spatial unit of analysis, required knowledge of the total combination of interrelated phenomena from place to place: physical landscapes, political and economic structures, climate, soil, and flora and fauna. regions can neither be discarded for an exclusive focus on global processes nor can they be embraced as a pedagogical framework to divide up the globe. Gould, P. 1979. âGeography 1957-77: The Augean Period.â Annals of the Association of Geographers. Geografiska Annaler. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 22(3): 335â345. Despite this agreement about regional geographyâs continued relevance, reviews of new regional geography (Bradshaw 1990; Gilbert 1988; Holmen 1995) have attempted to sort out its divergent research agendas, some of which include: 1) regions as a source of subjectification, enrolled in processes of identity formation that link a group or individual to a place; 2) regions as local responses to global capitalist processes, involved in the production and reproduction of inequality; 3) regions as the context and medium for both facilitating and inhibiting social interactions and relationships; 4) regions as the spatial effects of global economic restructuring. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. Smith, Neil. On it the mindâs eye should see at least the continental outlines, major political divisions, vegetation and climatic belts, primal atmospheric and oceanic circulation, the earthâs outstanding cities and their economic flows, and ultimately the people themselves and the quality of life.â William Warntz, in a proposal on the utility of a Geography Department at Harvard (1968). The systematic geography approach was introduced by Alexander Von Humboldt, a German geographer. Methods and Techniques include Cartography, Quantitative Techniques/Statistical Techniques, Geo-informatics comprising techniques such as Remote Sensing, GIS, GPS, etc. 1987. One key argument of new regional geography is that regions are the outcome of relationally networked processes. Although maps make regions appear to be self-apparent global divisions, geographers have long debated the region as a framework for understanding the world. Others argue that geography instruction should not begin with predetermined metaregional frameworks. World Regional Geography, revised to teach global processes through the scale of regions, simultaneously works toward teaching the distinctiveness of each regional place. Despite its decline in the discipline during the 1960s, regional geographical knowledge maintained its educational grasp for an array of reasons. To teach this global-scale class, instructors commonly take students on a âtourâ of the world, region by region. New regional geography is a heterogeneous field with a general interest in “social theory that would explain spatial variation” (Holmen 1995). 102â118. Warntzâs description of the components of this âinstantaneously available globeâ continue to be covered in regional geography textbooks, beginning with the continents, the political boundaries which divide them up, weather patterns, flora and fauna, in addition to political and economic structures, and struggles over resources particular to each regional configuration. In a contemporary world that is often said to be increasingly interconnected, teaching students to think critically about world regions is perhaps more important than ever. Main critic… Moving from the 1973 oil embargo among OPEC countries to the 1973-74 stock market crash, the course would immediately cover political-economic relationships between the Middle East, Europe and North America, quickly moving into Latin America with its subsequent debt crisis. Historically, geography has been divided into physical versus human, systematic versus regional, deterministic versus possibilistic and normative versus positive categories. An extensive analysis of textbook approaches showed that a detailed classification of these approaches does not currently exist. Although the textbook begins with a predetermined regional framework, it simultaneously works to emphasize varied processes that reshape regional configurations. But to do away with this regional structure is not necessarily to discard regions. Massey, D. 1979. This section compels students to recognize the variety of factors leading to the emergence of regional configurations, including climate change, geopolitics, and social movements. In International Encyclopedia of HumanÂ Geography. American empire: Rooseveltâs geographer and the prelude to globalization. âEvery educated person should carry about in his mindâs eye an instantaneously available globe. The most widely used world regional geography textbook, World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and EnvironmentsÂ (Marston et al., 2015), has worked to integrate a more processual approach to regions through an âemerging regionsâ section. 1998. As Bradshaw (1990) expressed: âthere is not a new regional geography but many.â. Major branches of Physical Geography are − Geomorphology, Climatology, Hydrology, and Soil Geography. Following John Agnew, we can connect this to a wide range of other dichotomies as well: space and place, general and specific, modern and traditional, quantitative and qualitative. Re-Situating Regional Geography in an Undergraduate Curriculum: An Example from a New University. Progress in Human Geography 23(1): 91â96. Regional and thematic approaches are two basic approaches in geography, and they are found in many combinations and variants in textbooks. Bradshaw, MJ.
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